Unit 7 Ecology & Environment: How do Animals Spend the Winter? Class 9 English Exercise - SkulTech (2023)

Unit 7 Ecology & Environment: How do Animals Spend the Winter?

Summary of the Text: How do Animals Spend the Winter?

During winter, animals employ various survival strategies. Some migrate to warmer regions where food is more abundant, guided by celestial cues such as the sun, moon, stars, and the Earth’s magnetic field. Others adapt to the cold weather by making behavioural or physical changes. They may grow thicker fur or feathers, change their diets to match seasonal food availability or seek shelter in tree holes, burrows, or under rocks and leaves.

Some animals huddle together for warmth, while others remain active in frost-free areas or cold-water environments. Certain species, like bears, skunks, chipmunks, and some bats, enter a state of hibernation, reducing their metabolic activity and relying on stored body fat for energy. Cold-blooded animals find refuge in holes, burrows, or water bodies, becoming dormant due to their inability to regulate body temperature. Overall, these strategies enable animals to endure the challenges of winter and ensure their survival until warmer times return.

Glossary of The Text

Arctic tern [ɑːrˈtɪktərn] – a bird that nests close to the North Pole in summer and migrates to Antarctica in autumn.

Bark [bɑːrk] – the protective outer covering of a tree trunk.

Beavers [ˈbiːvərz] – large semiaquatic rodents known for building dams in rivers.

Caribou [ˈkærɪbuː] – a type of deer found in arctic and subarctic regions.

Compass [ˈkʌmpəs] – a navigational instrument used for determining direction.

Crane fly [kreɪn flaɪ] – a large flying insect with long legs and a slender body.

Deer [dɪr] – a hoofed mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.

Dormant [ˈdɔːrmənt] – in a state of rest or inactivity.

Earthworms [ˈɜːrθwɜːrmz] – elongated, burrowing worms that live in soil.

Elk [ɛlk] – a large species of deer found in North America and Eurasia.

Fat [fæt] – a natural substance stored in the body for energy.

Frost-free [frɔːst friː] – not affected by frost or freezing temperatures.

Fur [fɜːr] – the thick hair covering of an animal.

Geese [ɡiːs] – plural of “goose,” a large water bird.

Grocery store [ˈɡroʊsəri stɔːr] – a shop where food and other household items are sold.

Hibernation [ˌhaɪbərˈneɪʃən] – a state of deep sleep in animals during winter.

Holes [hoʊlz] – openings or cavities in objects or surfaces.

Inactive [ɪnˈæktɪv] – not active or not moving.

Insects [ˈɪnsɛkts] – small, six-legged animals with exoskeletons.

Leaves [liːvz] – the flattened, typically green, structures of a plant.

Logs [lɔɡz] – fallen or cut sections of tree trunks.

Migrate [maɪˈɡreɪt] – to move from one place to another, typically due to seasonal changes.

Moss [mɔːs] – a small, non-vascular plant that forms dense, green clumps.

Mud [mʌd] – wet, sticky earth or clay.

Nest [nɛst] – a structure built by birds for laying eggs and raising young.

Nuts [nʌts] – hard-shelled fruits containing a seed.

Oxygen [ˈɒksɪdʒən] – a chemical element necessary for respiration and combustion.

Ponds [pɑːndz] – small bodies of still water.

Reptiles [ˈrɛptaɪlz] – cold-blooded vertebrates, including snakes, turtles, and lizards.

Rocks [rɑːks] – large, solid mineral formations.

Rodents [ˈroʊdənts] – small mammals characterized by continuously growing incisor teeth.

Seasons [ˈsiːzənz] – distinct periods of the year characterized by weather patterns.

Shelter [ˈʃɛltər] – a place providing protection from weather conditions.

Skunks [skʌŋks] – small, carnivorous mammals known for their ability to emit a strong odor.

Snow [snoʊ] – atmospheric water vapor frozen into ice crystals and falling to the ground.

Soil [sɔɪl] – the upper layer of earth, composed of minerals, organic matter, and microorganisms.

Spider [ˈspaɪdər] – an eight-legged arachnid that spins webs to catch prey.

Stones [stoʊnz] – small, solid mineral formations.

Store [stɔːr] – a place where goods are kept for sale.

Sun [sʌn] – the star that provides light and heat to the Earth.

Termites [ˈtɜːrmʌɪts] – small, eusocial insects known for their ability to digest wood.

Turtles [ˈtɜːrtlz] – reptiles with a protective shell enclosing their body.

Twigs [twɪɡz] – small, slender branches of a tree or shrub.

Underground [ˌʌndərˈɡraʊnd] – beneath the surface of the ground.

V-shaped [viː ʃeɪpt] – having a shape like the letter “V.”

Warm [wɔːrm] – having or giving off heat or a moderate degree of heat.

Water [ˈwɔːtər] – a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid essential for life.

Weather [ˈwɛðər] – the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.

Whales [weɪlz] – large marine mammals belonging to the order Cetacea.

Winter [ˈwɪntər] – the coldest season of the year, characterized by low temperatures.

Exercise of How do Animals Spend the Winter?

A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings.

a. a shop that sells food and other things used in homes ⇒ grocery

b. related to the regions around the North Pole ⇒ Arctic

c. an underground passage ⇒ tunnel

d. to find the right way to deal with a difficult situation ⇒ navigate

e. a person who works on a ship as a member of the crew ⇒ sailor

f. to change behaviour in order to deal more successfully with a new situation ⇒ adapt

g. a very small green or yellow plant that spreads over wet surfaces, rocks, trees, etc. ⇒ moss

h. to gather closely together, usually because of cold or fear ⇒ huddle

B. Read the paragraphs A-E and match them to the suitable titles.

A – Migration to New Places

B – Adaptation to New Weather

C – Living in Underground Holes

D – Going into a Deep Sleep

E – Other Ways to Survive

C. Write True or False against the following statements.

a. Animals wear thick coats to protect themselves from the cold. ⇒ False

b. Flying in flocks helps birds protect themselves from the cold. ⇒ False

c. Birds do not travel far to avoid the cold. ⇒ False

d. Some animals collect extra food for winter. ⇒ True

e. Snow fleas hibernate in winter. ⇒ False

f. Cold water makes it difficult for some animals to breathe. ⇒ False

D. Answer the following questions.

a. Why do birds migrate in groups?

⇒ Birds migrate in groups because the trip can be dangerous.

b. What controls the migration cycle of birds?

⇒ Changes in the amount of daylight and the weather control the migration cycle of birds.

c. How do birds find the same place for migration each year?

⇒ Birds find the same place for migration each year by using the Sun, Moon and stars for direction.

d. Why do you think squirrels and mice huddle close together in winter?

⇒ I think squirrels and mice huddle close together in winter to try to stay warm.

e. How do animals maintain energy during hibernation?

⇒ Animals maintain energy during hibernation by eating extra food and storing it as body fat.

f. How do frogs, turtles and fish change their habitats to survive in winter?

⇒ In winter, frogs, turtles and fish hide under rocks, logs or fallen leaves. They may even bury themselves in the mud.

Grammar I

Conditional Type 1

A. Use the correct form of the verbs from the brackets to complete the sentences.

If you call me, I ……… (come).

⇒ will come

If you ……… (not leave), I’ll call the police.

⇒ do not leave

Somebody ……… (notice) if you make a mistake.

⇒ will notice

If I see her, I ……… (tell) her to call you.

⇒ will tell

She ……… (be) very angry if you don’t apologise.

⇒ will be

They will be happy if we ……… (invite) them to the party.

⇒ invite

Will they pay any more if I ……… (work) harder?

⇒ work

If you don’t lock your bicycle, someone ……… (steal) it.

⇒ will steal

I ……… (lend) you some money if you promise not to waste it.

⇒ will lend

Unless you use your English, it ……… (not improve).

⇒ will not improve

You must study hard if you ……… (want) to join college.

⇒ want

Writing

Write paragraphs on the following topics in about 100 words.

Deforestation

Deforestation is the widespread clearing or removal of forests, primarily caused by human activities. This destructive process has significant environmental consequences. When forests are cut down or burned, the intricate ecosystems they support are disrupted, leading to a loss of biodiversity. Deforestation also contributes to climate change, as trees play a crucial role in absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. Furthermore, the destruction of forests leads to soil erosion, reduced water quality, and disrupted water cycles. The impacts of deforestation are far-reaching, affecting not only the local environment but also global ecological balance and the livelihoods of indigenous communities who depend on forests for their sustenance. Efforts to combat deforestation include promoting sustainable forestry practices, reforestation initiatives, and raising awareness about the importance of preserving our forests for future generations.

Endangered Animals

Endangered animals are species that face the threat of extinction in the near future. This critical situation is mainly a result of human activities, such as habitat destruction, poaching, pollution, and climate change. The loss of natural habitats due to deforestation, urbanization, and industrial development poses a significant risk to many animal species. Additionally, illegal hunting and trade of animal products further contribute to the decline of endangered animals. Pollution from chemicals, pesticides, and waste disposal also poses a threat to their survival. Climate change impacts their habitats, disrupting ecosystems and altering their natural behaviors and life cycles. Efforts to protect endangered animals involve establishing protected areas, implementing conservation programs, raising public awareness, and enforcing strict laws against illegal hunting and trading. International collaborations and initiatives play a crucial role in conserving these species and ensuring their survival for future generations. It is vital that we recognize the importance of biodiversity and take proactive measures to protect and preserve endangered animals and their habitats.

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